Ravi Shankar was a capacious man. He was able to span several different streams.

His impact in helping make Indian classical music known worldwide cannot be overstated.

"It was Shankar's vision that brought the sounds of the raga into western consciousness," writes The Guardian. "He was thus the first performer and composer to substantially bridge the musical gap between India and the West."

Shankar became internationally famous, of course, through his mentoring of George Harrison, who popularized the sitar in "Norwegian Wood" and other Beatles compositions. Shankar also collaborated with a number of other renowned Western performers, such as Yehudi Menuhin, Philip Glass and John Coltrane (who actually named his son Ravi in Shankar's honor). Contemporary world music owes a huge debt to him.

"Whether it is Henry Threadgill's off-kilter post-jazz or Os Mutantes' Brazilian gumbo, Bjork's ethereal soundscapes, or RZA's fractured beats, all proudly march through a door that Shankar helped open," writes the New Yorker.

But there were other streams converging in Shankar's work. There was a coming together of religious influences, too. Not many know that Shankar's musical guru was a Muslim, Allauddin Khan, and that his first wife was Khan's daughter, who converted to Hinduism and adopted the name Annapurna Devi. The contribution of Muslims to Indian classical music is little known outside South Asia. Yet the role of Islam -- a religion often thought to be inimical to cultural expression -- has been immense, and in the most wonderfully syncretic way.

The very instrument that Ravi Shankar played -- the sitar -- was said to have been created by a legendary Sufi Muslim mystic and poet named Amir Khusro. Khusro is also credited with inventing the tabla, the percussion instrument that nearly always was the chief accompaniment for Shankar's sitar.

Shankar marked the fusion of the personal with the political. He was the person who persuaded George Harrison to organize the famous benefit concert for Bangladesh in 1971. And Shankar happily collaborated with the Indian People's Theatre Association, a group of progressive artists dominating India's stage and cinema in the 1940s and the 1950s.

In addition, Shankar was eager to combine his music with another vibrant art form. Shankar teamed up with the best-ever Indian film director, the Oscar lifetime achievement winner Satyajit Ray, on the Apu trilogy, which regularly features on critics' lists of the best ever movies made. Shankar also composed for "Gandhi," the Richard Attenborough-directed biopic that magnified the fame of the Indian independence leader.

Shankar was not averse to combining high art with popular culture, which can be seen by the fact that he gave the music for a number of Bollywood movies, dismissed by many of his peers as kitsch.

I had the privilege of seeing Ravi Shankar twice in concert: once solo in India in the late 1980s and once in Chicago in 1997 with his daughter Anoushka. He made magic with his music on both occasions. My wife went for a concert of his when he came to perform here in Madison, Wisconsin, in 2007. Approaching ninety, he was a frail old man until he touched his sitar, she told me. At that moment, a magical convergence happened.

Ravi Shankar's talent was oceanic. It's hard to imagine someone as musically gifted as him emerging anytime soon.

If you liked this article by Amitabh Pal, the managing editor of the Progressive magazine, please check out his article entitled "Senate Rejection of Disabilities Treaty Shows GOP Descent Into Irrationality."

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Trump's politics are not the problem.

The fiery Milwaukee Sheriff is on the shortlist to head the Department of Homeland Security.

By Wendell Berry

Manifesto: The Mad Farmer Liberation Front

Love the quick profit, the annual raise,
vacation with pay. Want more 
of everything ready made. Be afraid 
to know your neighbors and to die.
And you will have a window in your head.
Not even your future will be a mystery 
any more. Your mind will be punched in a card 
and shut away in a little drawer.
When they want you to buy something 
they will call you. When they want you
to die for profit they will let you know. 
So, friends, every day do something
that won’t compute. Love the Lord. 
Love the world. Work for nothing. 
Take all that you have and be poor.
Love someone who does not deserve it. 
Denounce the government and embrace 
the flag. Hope to live in that free 
republic for which it stands. 
Give your approval to all you cannot
understand. Praise ignorance, for what man 
has not encountered he has not destroyed.
Ask the questions that have no answers. 
Invest in the millennium. Plant sequoias.
Say that your main crop is the forest
that you did not plant,
that you will not live to harvest.

Say that the leaves are harvested 
when they have rotted into the mold.
Call that profit. Prophesy such returns.
Put your faith in the two inches of humus 
that will build under the trees
every thousand years.
Listen to carrion—put your ear
close, and hear the faint chattering
of the songs that are to come. 
Expect the end of the world. Laugh. 
Laughter is immeasurable. Be joyful
though you have considered all the facts. 
So long as women do not go cheap 
for power, please women more than men.
Ask yourself: Will this satisfy 
a woman satisfied to bear a child?
Will this disturb the sleep 
of a woman near to giving birth? 
Go with your love to the fields.
Lie easy in the shade. Rest your head 
in her lap. Swear allegiance 
to what is nighest your thoughts.
As soon as the generals and the politicos 
can predict the motions of your mind, 
lose it. Leave it as a sign 
to mark the false trail, the way 
you didn’t go. Be like the fox 
who makes more tracks than necessary, 
some in the wrong direction.
Practice resurrection.

Wendell Berry is a poet, farmer, and environmentalist in Kentucky. This poem, first published in 1973, is reprinted by permission of the author and appears in his “New Collected Poems” (Counterpoint).

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