This story appeared in the April 2015 issue of our magazine. Subscribe to read the full issue online.

 

Ten years ago, on Martin Luther King Jr.’s birthday, my mother, a former Black Panther, died from complications of sickle cell anemia. Weeks before she died, the FBI came knocking at our door, demanding that my mother testify in a secret trial proceeding against other former Panthers or face arrest. My mother, unable to walk, refused. The detectives told my mother as they left that they would be watching her. They didn’t get to do that. My mother died just two weeks later. 

My mother was not the only black person to come under the watchful eye of American law enforcement for perceived and actual dissidence. Nor is dissidence always a requirement for being subject to spying. Files obtained during a break-in at an FBI office in 1971 revealed that African Americans, J. Edger Hoover’s largest target group, didn’t have to be perceived as dissident to warrant surveillance. They just had to be black. As I write this, the same philosophy is driving the increasing adoption and use of surveillance technologies by local law enforcement agencies across the United States. 

Today, media reporting on government surveillance is laser-focused on the revelations by Edward Snowden that millions of Americans were being spied on by the NSA. Yet my mother’s visit from the FBI reminds me that, from the slave pass system to laws that deputized white civilians as enforcers of Jim Crow, black people and other people of color have lived for centuries with surveillance practices aimed at maintaining a racial hierarchy. 

It’s time for journalists to tell a new story that does not start the clock when privileged classes learn they are targets of surveillance. We need to understand that data has historically been overused to repress dissidence, monitor perceived criminality, and perpetually maintain an impoverished underclass.

In an era of big data, the Internet has increased the speed and secrecy of data collection. Thanks to new surveillance technologies, law enforcement agencies are now able to collect massive amounts of indiscriminate data. Yet legal protections and policies have not caught up to this technological advance. 

Concerned advocates see mass surveillance as the problem and protecting privacy as the goal. Targeted surveillance is an obvious answer—it may be discriminatory, but it helps protect the privacy perceived as an earned privilege of the inherently innocent.

The trouble is, targeted surveillance frequently includes the indiscriminate collection of the private data of people targeted by race but not involved in any crime. 

For targeted communities, there is little to no expectation of privacy from government or corporate surveillance. 

Instead, we are watched, either as criminals or as consumers. We do not expect policies to protect us. Instead, we’ve birthed a complex and coded culture—from jazz to spoken dialects—in order to navigate a world in which spying, from AT&T and Walmart to public benefits programs and beat cops on the block, is as much a part of our built environment as the streets covered in our blood. 

In a recent address, New York City Police Commissioner Bill Bratton made it clear: “2015 will be one of the most significant years in the history of this organization. It will be the year of technology, in which we literally will give to every member of this department technology that would’ve been unheard of even a few years ago.” 

Predictive policing, also known as “Total Information Awareness,” is described as using advanced technological tools and data analysis to “preempt” crime. It utilizes trends, patterns, sequences, and affinities found in data to make determinations about when and where crimes will occur.

This model is deceptive, however, because it presumes data inputs to be neutral. They aren’t. In a racially discriminatory criminal justice system, surveillance technologies reproduce injustice. Instead of reducing discrimination, predictive policing is a face of what author Michelle Alexander calls the “New Jim Crow”—a de facto system of separate and unequal application of laws, police practices, conviction rates, sentencing terms, and conditions of confinement that operate more as a system of social control by racial hierarchy than as crime prevention or punishment. 

In New York City, the predictive policing approach in use is “Broken Windows.” This approach to policing places an undue focus on quality of life crimes—like selling loose cigarettes, the kind of offense for which Eric Garner was choked to death. Without oversight, accountability, transparency, or rights, predictive policing is just high-tech racial profiling—indiscriminate data collection that drives discriminatory policing practices.

As local law enforcement agencies increasingly adopt surveillance technologies, they use them in three primary ways: to listen in on specific conversations on and offline; to observe daily movements of individuals and groups; and to observe data trends. Police departments like Bratton’s aim to use sophisticated technologies to do all three.

They will use technologies like license plate readers, which the Electronic Frontier Foundation found to be disproportionately used in communities of color and communities in the process of being gentrified. 

They will use facial recognition, biometric scanning software, which the FBI has now rolled out as a national system, to be adopted by local police departments for any criminal justice purpose.

They intend to use body and dashboard cameras, which have been touted as an effective step toward accountability based on the results of one study, yet storage and archiving procedures, among many other issues, remain unclear.

They will use Stingray cellphone interceptors. According to the ACLU, Stingray technology is an invasive cellphone surveillance device that mimics cellphone towers and sends out signals to trick cellphones in the area into transmitting their locations and identifying information. When used to track a suspect’s cellphone, they also gather information about the phones of countless bystanders who happen to be nearby.

The same is true of domestic drones, which are in increasing use by U.S. law enforcement to conduct routine aerial surveillance. While drones are currently unarmed, drone manufacturers are considering arming these remote-controlled aircraft with weapons like rubber bullets, tasers, and tear gas.

They will use fusion centers. Originally designed to increase interagency collaboration for the purposes of counterterrorism, these have instead become the local arm of the intelligence community. According to Electronic Frontier Foundation, there are currently seventy-eight on record. They are the clearinghouse for increasingly used “suspicious activity reports”—described as “official documentation of observed behavior reasonably indicative of pre-operational planning related to terrorism or other criminal activity.” These reports and other collected data are often stored in massive databases like e-Verify and Prism. As anybody who’s ever dealt with gang databases knows, it’s almost impossible to get off a federal or state database, even when the data collected is incorrect or no longer true.

Predictive policing doesn’t just lead to racial and religious profiling—it relies on it. Just as stop and frisk legitimized an initial, unwarranted contact between police and people of color, almost 90 percent of whom turn out to be innocent of any crime, suspicious activities reporting and the dragnet approach of fusion centers target communities of color. One review of such reports collected in Los Angeles shows approximately 75 percent were of people of color.

This is the future of policing in America, and it should terrify you as much as it terrifies me. Unfortunately, it probably doesn’t, because my life is at far greater risk than the lives of white Americans, especially those reporting on the issue in the media or advocating in the halls of power.

One of the most terrifying aspects of high-tech surveillance is the invisibility of those it disproportionately impacts.

The NSA and FBI have engaged local law enforcement agencies and electronic surveillance technologies to spy on Muslims living in the United States. According to FBI training materials uncovered by Wired in 2011, the bureau taught agents to treat “mainstream” Muslims as supporters of terrorism, to view charitable donations by Muslims as “a funding mechanism for combat,” and to view Islam itself as a “Death Star” that must be destroyed if terrorism is to be contained. From New York City to Chicago and beyond, local law enforcement agencies have expanded unlawful and covert racial and religious profiling against Muslims not suspected of any crime. There is no national security reason to profile all Muslims.

At the same time, almost 450,000 migrants are in detention facilities throughout the United States, including survivors of torture, asylum seekers, families with small children, and the elderly. Undocumented migrant communities enjoy few legal protections, and are therefore subject to brutal policing practices, including illegal surveillance practices. According to the Sentencing Project, of the more than 2 million people incarcerated in the United States, more than 60 percent are racial and ethnic minorities.

But by far, the widest net is cast over black communities. Black people alone represent 40 percent of those incarcerated. More black men are incarcerated than were held in slavery in 1850, on the eve of the Civil War. Lest some misinterpret that statistic as evidence of greater criminality, a 2012 study confirms that black defendants are at least 30 percent more likely to be imprisoned than whites for the same crime.

This is not a broken system, it is a system working perfectly as intended, to the detriment of all. The NSA could not have spied on millions of cellphones if it were not already spying on black people, Muslims, and migrants.

As surveillance technologies are increasingly adopted and integrated by law enforcement agencies today, racial disparities are being made invisible by a media environment that has failed to tell the story of surveillance in the context of structural racism.

Reporters love to tell the technology story. For some, it’s a sexier read. To me, freedom from repression and racism is far sexier than the newest gadget used to reinforce racial hierarchy. As civil rights protections catch up with the technological terrain, reporting needs to catch up, too. Many journalists still focus their reporting on the technological trends and not the racial hierarchies that these trends are enforcing. 

Martin Luther King Jr. once said, “Everything we see is a shadow cast by that which we do not see.” Journalists have an obligation to tell the stories that are hidden from view.

We are living in an incredible time, when migrant activists have blocked deportation buses, and a movement for black lives has emerged, and when women, queer, and trans experiences have been placed right at the center. The decentralized power of the Internet makes that possible.

But the Internet also makes possible the high-tech surveillance that threatens to drive structural racism in the twenty-first century. 

We can help black lives matter by ensuring that technology is not used to cement a racial hierarchy that leaves too many people like me dead or in jail. Our communities need partners, not gatekeepers.

Together, we can change the cultural terrain that makes killing black people routine. We can counter inequality by ensuring that both the technology and the police departments that use it are democratized. We can change the story on surveillance to raise the voices of those who have been left out.

There are no voiceless people, only those that ain’t been heard yet. Let’s birth a new norm in which the technological tools of the twenty-first century create equity and justice for all—so all bodies enjoy full and equal protection, and the Jim Crow surveillance state exists no more. 

 

 

Malkia Amala Cyril is founder and executive director of the Center for Media Justice (CMJ) and co-founder of the Media Action Grassroots Network, a national network of 175 organizations working to ensure media access, rights, and representation for marginalized communities.

Section: 

Comments

Canada wishes to enact a similar legislation to your Patriot Act; the down side is self-explanatory. Thank You for your efforts to maintain our Democratic Civil Rights and Freedoms, that millions died for in the past to preserve and prevent valid security issues from becoming the ‘feigned alarm’ pretexts for tighter government control with less accountability. Bill-C51 Targeting Our Democratic Institutions and Creating False Positives I am presently self-represented together with an assisting law office team in Ottawa, lead by Mr. Ernest Tannis, expert at Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) for advancing my multi-faceted case to the courts, a case which intrinsically relates to the proposed legislation Bill – C51, tabled in Parliament. THE CONDITIONING My case is a prime example of why Bill-C51 should be nixed in Parliament. The 'conditioning' of the public to 'perceived terrorist threats' by the present government through the media is in full swing. If implemented and based on the lack of correcting a false positive: (my case), the 'conditioning' of Bill-C51's enforcers will most likely be inclined to 'shoot first' and don't answer questions later; which I have been a recipient of together with widespread character maligning to denigrate my claim. POOR TRACK RECORD It is a fact that the poor track record to-date of affected ‘whistle blowers’ attaining public visibility shows that agents of CSIS, CSEC, and the RCMP ( counterpart to your NSA, CIA and FBI) and the their agencies have no interest in correcting any 'wrongs' committed to innocent and normal law abiding citizens and immigrants in Canada. They would possibly be immune by attempting to defray relevant , if not critical evidence, would now be allowed to be ‘invisible’ with Bill-C51’s potential full implementation. THE SOPHISTICATED TECHNOLOGY Being a victim of micro-chipping has broadened my introspection of the million dollar question of who the perpetrators were and possible motives. I have a variety of possibilities but don't want to waste your time expounding on each. However the possibilities narrow down to 'professional-medical-scientific' as the sophistication and ingenuity behind my removed US Pat. No. 6205361 microchip ( Advanced Bionics, Ca ) is remarkably more advanced ( silicon micro circuitry encased in a protein based substance and hermetically sealed to prevent immune rejection ) than a simple RFID. My 'test case' - 'guinea-pig' theory may not be too far fetched. The 'security' fit for such a remarkable device is immense and very hard to detect even by seasoned physicians as it mimics at a glance, calciferous growth or chronditis. The benzidine-molybdic acid test easily detected a silicon concentrated substance as attested to by David Ayling, witness to my microchip removal; 2 stages-the metallic filament 27 Dec 2008 and the main part at the Albany Clinic 16 August 2012. David died 13 March 2014. The State of Michigan has strict laws regarding the possession of psychotronic weapons which can be bought for $500 (a palm sized unit-disrupts bio-tissue causing cancer) . David Ayling died of a brain tumor; he was playing tennis for 11/2 hrs 3 weeks prior to his death; suspect psychotronic weapon effects. SURVEILLANCE - EVIDENCE OF FALSE POSITIVE THWARTED I should have invited the media on 29 July 2014, Health Professions Appeal Review Board (HPARB) Panel Hearing 151 Bloor St W, Toronto Ontario Canada. when my agent pulled a vial containing my removed microchip from his briefcase and the Chair stood up and said " we are not here today for the truth, justice or evidence; we are here today to look at the reasonableness and adequacy of your claim against Dr. Jeffrey Chernin ( Director, Mental Health-Health Canada, represented by a Crown Attorney). I and agent were speechless. The very reason for the 'delusional' was the microchip belief. A case of bureaucratic protocol superseding logic and truth. Evidence of a ‘false positive’ target person; as myself recognizing it, he/she will likely be deemed ‘delusional’ by psychiatrists, thus undermining any serious ‘collateral damage’. This aspect is an almost perfect tool for curtailing protest/grievance and if needs be maintaining either on-going surveillance or non-lethal harassment. One reason this technology has remained a state secret is the widespread prestige of the psychiatric Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV produced by the US American Psychiatric Association (APA) and printed in 18 languages. Psychiatrists working for U.S. (and Canadian) intelligence agencies no doubt participated in writing and revising this manual. This psychiatric ‘bible’ covers up the secret development of microchip (MC) technologies by labelling some of their effects as symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia (or delusional ) NEEDLESS FEAR FACTOR I fear for all Canadian protesters regarding subjective/objective issues, non-ethnic Canadians and especially those with law abiding Muslim backgrounds, who would now have to go to sleep at night with 'fear' on their minds after the possible implementation of Bill-C51, which overall will hurt Canadians infinitely more than the threat of terrorism. With the passage of Bill-C51, now one half the population can go to bed feeling secure. The other poorer half of all races, with a large percentage who are more exposed to all facets of law enforcement down to it's lowliest mis-demeanor derivative, can now go to bed with possible fear. Real security work is tough but let’s not take shortcuts at the expense of our private, civil and democratic rights. The following unknown authored expression holds : "In times of universal deceit, speaking the truth is most likely seen as a revolutionary act"- therefore thinking along with this vein of thought, any democratic protest or expression presently allowed may not be tolerated after implementation of Bill-C51. G-D Bless Canada/USA and all freedom loving democratic nations. Yours Sincerely; Capt. Gary Kassbaum M.M. 647-853-4552 gary.seastop@gmail.com
This is exactly right. All the abuses that now trouble "decent white folk" have been perfected over decades on minorities and the decent white folks were not greatly troubled... then. First they came for the.... Yeah, exactly like that.
Dear Mr Kassbaum can i contact you or you call me .Ive been hurt and or harrassed for years now .i would like to ask u a couple questions

Add new comment

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.

More

The report's theme is “Locked Out,” for the ongoing marginalization of Blacks and Latinos.

The successor government has already made huge mistakes.

The biggest problem we have as a society, Nader says, is that “people don’t show up.”

By Wendell Berry

Manifesto: The Mad Farmer Liberation Front

Love the quick profit, the annual raise,
vacation with pay. Want more 
of everything ready made. Be afraid 
to know your neighbors and to die.
And you will have a window in your head.
Not even your future will be a mystery 
any more. Your mind will be punched in a card 
and shut away in a little drawer.
When they want you to buy something 
they will call you. When they want you
to die for profit they will let you know. 
So, friends, every day do something
that won’t compute. Love the Lord. 
Love the world. Work for nothing. 
Take all that you have and be poor.
Love someone who does not deserve it. 
Denounce the government and embrace 
the flag. Hope to live in that free 
republic for which it stands. 
Give your approval to all you cannot
understand. Praise ignorance, for what man 
has not encountered he has not destroyed.
Ask the questions that have no answers. 
Invest in the millennium. Plant sequoias.
Say that your main crop is the forest
that you did not plant,
that you will not live to harvest.


Say that the leaves are harvested 
when they have rotted into the mold.
Call that profit. Prophesy such returns.
Put your faith in the two inches of humus 
that will build under the trees
every thousand years.
Listen to carrion—put your ear
close, and hear the faint chattering
of the songs that are to come. 
Expect the end of the world. Laugh. 
Laughter is immeasurable. Be joyful
though you have considered all the facts. 
So long as women do not go cheap 
for power, please women more than men.
Ask yourself: Will this satisfy 
a woman satisfied to bear a child?
Will this disturb the sleep 
of a woman near to giving birth? 
Go with your love to the fields.
Lie easy in the shade. Rest your head 
in her lap. Swear allegiance 
to what is nighest your thoughts.
As soon as the generals and the politicos 
can predict the motions of your mind, 
lose it. Leave it as a sign 
to mark the false trail, the way 
you didn’t go. Be like the fox 
who makes more tracks than necessary, 
some in the wrong direction.
Practice resurrection.

Wendell Berry is a poet, farmer, and environmentalist in Kentucky. This poem, first published in 1973, is reprinted by permission of the author and appears in his “New Collected Poems” (Counterpoint).


Public School Shakedown

Progressive Media Project

Newsletter