By Roger Bybee

Automaker Volkswagen has 63 plants around the world, and unions represent workers at all but three of them. Predictably, two of the exceptions are in China, where a prohibition on independent unions has led to low wages, creating a major labor magnet for U.S. and international firms.

After a fear-driven campaign concluded on Friday night, the third exception remains VW's plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The United Auto Workers (UAW) lost a representation election held Feb. 12-14 by a vote of 712-626. But by retaining support among almost 47 percent of the workers -- even after a solid majority signed cards asking for union representation -- the UAW is in strong position to springboard to victory during the next election.

The UAW's majority support eroded under a sustained fear campaign that spooked enough workers into believing the union would cost them their jobs. In an unusual twist, the fear factor was injected into the Chattanooga vote not by Volkswagen, which maintained a stance of neutrality under pressure from the German union IG Metall. VW actually expressed willingness to set up a "works council" with the UAW in Tennessee, which would have given workers a stronger voice at the Chattanooga facility.

But anti-union public officials, business groups and rightwingers stepped into the election, seeing a UAW victory quite correctly as a threat to the entire Southern economic model. This Southern model, of a submissive and tightly controlled, non-union workforce that fights for low wages while local governments stay almost exclusively focused on doling out lavish corporate subsidies, has become a dominant U.S. corporate export, now popular in China, Mexico, and the rest of the global South.

The task of scaring Chattanooga workers was embraced by Tennessee Republicans, including Senator Bob Corker, Governor Bob Haslam, state legislative leaders and rightwing groups like Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax Reform. Their key message: A union victory at VW would mean the loss of future SUV jobs to Mexico (which VW forcefully denied), setting Chattanooga on an inevitable downward slide into "another Detroit."

This campaign did not just instill anxiety among the 1,550 VW workers, but it also to ratcheted up community pressure to oppose the union. Additional anxiety about the implications of a union victory was heightened when Haslam and legislative leaders declared that a UAW victory would endanger future subsidies to VW, which were equated with maintaining and creating more jobs.

Additionally, rightwing groups spent large sums to paint the UAW as an alien force that could bring dark, disruptive, destabilizing changes to the community rather than lifting up living standards, providing workers with a seat at the bargaining table, and giving ordinary citizens a voice in public issues. The UAW's personnel were instead depicted as "black-shirted thugs" who were, in the words of The Wall St. Journal's Stephen Moore, "inserting a cell into the body" and making it possible for "one cancer cell... to multiply and kill the body."

The Center for Worker Freedom, an organization created by Norquist, warned "the UAW wants your guns," a claim designed to startle the union's many hunting enthusiasts. Billboard messages from Norquist's group labeled the union as the "United Obama Workers." Others depicted Detroit in ruins, blaming the unions instead of telling the truth: That corporations had abandoned the city for China and Mexico.

With unionization at just 5.5 percent in Tennessee, workers and the public had little experience and precious little real-world information to counter the incessant claims of those lashing out at unionism. So, they lost.

In Chattanooga, the mounting national problem of low wages and inequality is especially acute. In Tennessee, the bottom 20 percent of citizens saw their incomes drop 12.1 percent in recent years, a trend that's been reflected across the South. Over half of the 225,000 jobs in Chattanooga are low-wage positions, according to Chattanooga activist Chris Brooks.

"At Chattanooga's Volkswagen plant, workers earn about half the hourly wage of what unionized workers at GM and Ford take home," he pointed out. "When benefits are added, our local workers at the taxpayer-subsidized VW factory make $40 an hour less than their union counterparts in Germany."

At the moment, CEOs, pro-corporate Southern officials and the business press are gloating over the UAW defeat. Growing support for the UAW at plants like the Nissan operation in Canton, Mississippi had already been generating concern. So anti-union forces in the South and across the U.S. are breathing a sigh of relief about the potential impact of a UAW victory in Chattanooga, and feeling sure that low wages will continue to prevail at 12 other foreign-owned auto "transplants" located across the South.

However, with the fault lines over income and the dignity of poor and working people becoming deeper every day, especially in the South, those who presume to rule should be wary. Earth-shaking movements drawn from those faults tend to be devastating, and almost always unpredictable.

Roger Bybee is a Milwaukee-based journalist whose work has appeared in, among others, The Progressive, Z Magazine, Progressive Populist, Extra!, American Prospect, Isthmus, and In These Times, for whom he blogs on labor issues at He also teaches Labor Studies at the University of Illinois. Bybee edited the weekly Racine Labor for fourteen years.

Photo: "Auto mechanic working at a repair shop," via Shutterstock.


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It's finally setting in: Trump is Trump and he’s not going to change because of winning the nomination.

The new head of the Environmental Protection has a history of suing the agency for trying to do its job.

By Wendell Berry

Manifesto: The Mad Farmer Liberation Front

Love the quick profit, the annual raise,
vacation with pay. Want more 
of everything ready made. Be afraid 
to know your neighbors and to die.
And you will have a window in your head.
Not even your future will be a mystery 
any more. Your mind will be punched in a card 
and shut away in a little drawer.
When they want you to buy something 
they will call you. When they want you
to die for profit they will let you know. 
So, friends, every day do something
that won’t compute. Love the Lord. 
Love the world. Work for nothing. 
Take all that you have and be poor.
Love someone who does not deserve it. 
Denounce the government and embrace 
the flag. Hope to live in that free 
republic for which it stands. 
Give your approval to all you cannot
understand. Praise ignorance, for what man 
has not encountered he has not destroyed.
Ask the questions that have no answers. 
Invest in the millennium. Plant sequoias.
Say that your main crop is the forest
that you did not plant,
that you will not live to harvest.

Say that the leaves are harvested 
when they have rotted into the mold.
Call that profit. Prophesy such returns.
Put your faith in the two inches of humus 
that will build under the trees
every thousand years.
Listen to carrion—put your ear
close, and hear the faint chattering
of the songs that are to come. 
Expect the end of the world. Laugh. 
Laughter is immeasurable. Be joyful
though you have considered all the facts. 
So long as women do not go cheap 
for power, please women more than men.
Ask yourself: Will this satisfy 
a woman satisfied to bear a child?
Will this disturb the sleep 
of a woman near to giving birth? 
Go with your love to the fields.
Lie easy in the shade. Rest your head 
in her lap. Swear allegiance 
to what is nighest your thoughts.
As soon as the generals and the politicos 
can predict the motions of your mind, 
lose it. Leave it as a sign 
to mark the false trail, the way 
you didn’t go. Be like the fox 
who makes more tracks than necessary, 
some in the wrong direction.
Practice resurrection.

Wendell Berry is a poet, farmer, and environmentalist in Kentucky. This poem, first published in 1973, is reprinted by permission of the author and appears in his “New Collected Poems” (Counterpoint).

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